Transforming Ethnicities into Nationalities, State as a Concept: Definition, Development, & Size, The Difference Between Countries, Nations, States, and Governments, Types of Power in International Relations: Strengths & Weaknesses, Devolution, Supranationalism & Democratization, Centripetal & Centrifugal Forces in Geopolitics, Shapes of States: Compact, Prorupted, Perforated & More, Liberal Internationalism: Definition & Principles, Power & Polarity in the International System, Imperialism & Colonialism in the International System, Agricultural Production Regions Associated With Bioclimatic Zones, Political Realism Theory: Definition & Principles, Theoretical Approaches to International Relations: Realism, Liberalism & Marxism, UExcel World Conflicts Since 1900: Study Guide & Test Prep, SAT Subject Test World History: Tutoring Solution, Major Events in World History Study Guide, Praxis World & U.S. History - Content Knowledge (5941): Practice & Study Guide, High School World History: Homeschool Curriculum, NY Regents Exam - Global History and Geography: Tutoring Solution, High School World History: Homework Help Resource, ACCESS World History: Online Textbook Help, AP World History Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, McDougal Littell World History: Online Textbook Help, AP European History: Homeschool Curriculum, AP European History Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Biological and Biomedical 47. Are the existing European instruments sufficient to promote the rights of minorities? Other citizens, in particular those belonging to other religious groups, must declare their membership of one community or the other. The Assembly notes that up until now there is no common European legal definition of the concept of ‘nation’.”. 3. • On the other hand, a state is defined as a patch of land with a sovereign government. This possibility has been used in the last few years by persons of Estonian origin whose forebears had left Estonia at various times, emigrated and settled in western countries, to rediscover their roots and contribute to the country’s economic and commercial development. The British nation was described afresh in opposition to immigrants, especially black settlers. 18. (…) Slovenes not holding Slovene citizenship may enjoy special rights and privileges in Slovenia.”. Is it necessary to adopt a new definition or do the existing definitions suffice? Croatia: The preamble to the Croatian Constitution (entitled “historical foundations”), a lengthy declaration on the foundations, origins and continuity of the Croatian nation, is no doubt the most outstanding example of the use of the concept: “the Republic of Croatia is established as the national state of the Croatian nation and the state of the members of autochthonous national minorities (…). This applies to Andorra, Austria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Portugal and Sweden. The committee therefore decided to organise a hearing and to invite academics representing different scientific cultures and different tendencies. Consequently, Germany does not recognise the existence of minorities other than national minorities and ethnic groups of German citizenship. Neither is this a purely academic exercise. All powers derive from the People and exist for the People and the Nation; (…)”. The distinction between national and new minorities. They must enjoy collective and individual rights in order to preserve, express and foster their national identity, as provided for in Assembly Recommendations 1201 (1993) and 1623 (2003) and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. -        Poland : Article 52 of the constitution provides that “Anyone whose Polish origin has been confirmed in accordance with statute may settle permanently in Poland”. 59. The experts consulted were sceptical on this subject. Justify your answer. Nation definition, a large body of people, associated with a particular territory, that is sufficiently conscious of its unity to seek or to possess a government peculiarly its own: The president spoke to the nation about the new tax. In its latest recommendation on the question of the rights of national minorities, however, the Assembly favoured a slightly different approach, asking the Committee of Ministers, in Recommendation 1623 (2003) to “draft an additional protocol to the framework convention conferring on the European Court of Human Rights the power to give advisory opinions on its interpretation of the framework convention”. 86. the European Charter of Local Self-Government. Lastly, mention should be made of Recommendation 1623 (2003) on rights of national minorities, in which the Assembly goes further, recommending that “the Committee of Ministers take the necessary measures to continue co-operation with the European Union, with a view to achieving common policies in the field of the protection of national minorities”. The Irish delegation’s answer to the questionnaire stresses the fact that the term “Irish nation” should be understood as meaning “Irish people”. Similarly, the European Court of Human Rights can play a very important role in securing recognition of the collective and individual rights of national communities (minorities). Some countries lost territory but kept their old cultural and linguistic roots, without confining them within the new borders of the new nation state. Does your Constitution give a definition or refer to the nature of your state (national, federal, multinational, etc.)? The issue raised here is by no means irrelevant to the present day. -        Articles 12 and 25 of the Constitution of Ukraine: “Ukraine provides for the satisfaction of national and cultural, and linguistic needs of Ukrainians residing beyond the borders of the State “; “Ukraine guarantees care and protection to its citizens who are beyond its borders”. Political theory is concerned mainly with the foundations of political community and institutions. Similarly, the kin-states have an important role in the process of upholding national minority rights as they must take an interest in what happens to their kinsmen living in other countries. Political science makes use of research from other fields, including: history, sociology, economics and geography. Other countries, such as Albania or Portugal, make no mention of it. Persons belonging to these minorities, which result from recent immigration, do not possess the citizenship of the states in which they are living, be it permanently (for example Russian-speaking persons in Estonia or Latvia) or temporarily (for example refugees or asylum seekers). States whose constitution refers explicitly or exclusively to the concept of “nation”, in the sense of an ethnic nation: 36. Nation-building: relies on identity to increase political allegiance to the emerging state; define the population and the citizens of the emerging state Imposition of authority: building on the control of borders, population and allegiance, the state has to develop administrative capacity to impose authority In accordance with the constitution and the domestic law of the Republic of Slovenia, the provisions of the Framework Convention will also apply to the members of the Roma community of the Republic of Slovenia; -        Sweden recognises that the national minorities in Sweden are the Sami, Swedish Finns, Tornedalers, Roma and Jews; -        “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” recognises that the Framework Convention applies to citizens of “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” living within its borders who are part of the Albanian, Turkish, Vlach, Serbian, Roma and Bosniac peoples.69. It is a legal concept expressing the unity of the social basis of the state, which is viewed as a given, not a construct. Political theory also focuses on empirical research into the way political institutions function in practice. 95. However, the concept is used within its civic meaning (as the entirety of citizens of the State irrespective of their nationality or ethnic origin). The word “people” is unquestionably more widespread. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. Albania, Andorra, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Monaco, Portugal, San Marino and Turkey have neither signed nor ratified it. 10378), Mr Einarsson adopts the following definition of nation/nationality: “a group of persons sharing the same language, culture and ethnic origins”. This analysis would not be complete without a reminder of the following definition, given by the Assembly in its Recommendation 1201 (1993): “the expression ‘‘national minority'' refers to a group of persons in a state who : a.       reside on the territory of that state and are citizens thereof ; b.        maintain longstanding, firm and lasting ties with that state ; c.        display distinctive ethnic, cultural, religious or linguistic characteristics ; d.       are sufficiently representative, although smaller in number than the rest of the population of that state or of a region of that state ; e.        are motivated by a concern to preserve together that which constitutes their common identity, including their culture, their traditions, their religion or their language.”. these terms in political science. Does your national legislation make any distinction between traditional minorities and new minorities? Lithuania : the Preamble of the Constitution is a proclamation on the Lithuanian nation (“The Lithuanian Nation- having created the State of Lithuania many centuries ago,- having based its legal foundations on the Lithuanian Statutes and the Constitutions of the Republic of Lithuania,- having for centuries persistently defended its freedom and independence,- having preserved its spirit, native language, writing, and customs,- embodying the innate right of the human being and the Nation to live and create freely in the land of their fathers and forefathers in the independent State of Lithuania,- fostering national concord in the land of Lithuania (…)”. American political scientist Benedict Anderson characterised a nation as an " imagined community ", and Australian academic Paul James sees it … All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. In particular, it has addressed the issue from the angle of nationality and state succession (see the proceedings of the colloquy held in Vilnius on 16-17 May 1997) and in its 2012 opinion on the protection of national minorities by their kin-state, at the committee’s request. Five groups of states may be identified: 3.1.1. There is a difference between the terms nation, state, and country, even though the words are often used interchangeably. Belgium is a perfect illustration of this because its state structure is founded on a linguistic basis: it is a federal state which comprises three communities (French, Flemish and German-speaking), three regions (Walloon, Flemish and Brussels) and four linguistic regions (three monolingual – the French-speaking region, the Dutch-speaking region and the German-speaking region – and the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital). 3. 81. When women won the right to vote after World... Write an essay that explains your understanding of... Is the US a nation state? The constitution of Romania enshrines clearly the concept of the civic nation, composed of all Romanian citizens. Politics, although plural in form, takes a singular verb when used to refer to the art or science of governing or to political science 21. The concept in fact underlies the Constitution: Estonian is the state’s official language; Article 49 recognises everyone’s right to preserve their national identity, etc. According to Recommendation 1623 (2003), “the Assembly considers that the states parties do not have an unconditional right to decide which groups within their territories qualify as national minorities in the sense of the framework convention. The Assembly recalls that, in its Resolution 1335 (2003), it stated that "the emergence of new and original forms of minority protection, particularly by their kin-states, constitutes a positive trend (…)". : The names of the members who took part in the meeting are printed in bold, Secretariat of the Committee: Mr Drzemczewski, Mr Schirmer, Mrs Clamer. 32. It is then interesting to note that Belgium guarantees in its constitution “the rights and freedoms of ideological and philosophical minorities”. A society that considers itself pluralist must allow the identities of its minorities, which are a source of enrichment for our societies, to be preserved and to flourish. The 2003 report on the issue of the preferential treatment of national minorities by the kin-state: the case of the Hungarian law of 19 June 2001 on Hungarians living in neighbouring countries (“Magyars”) looked at the terminology used in constitutions and laws to cover the phenomenon of ethnic, linguistic and cultural ties between groups of citizens within separate states, in particular the use of the word “nation” and the correlation with a specific historical or political context. If so, what rights? A nation-state is a cultural group (a nation) that is also a state (and may, in addition, be a sovereign state). The Sami also enjoy a right to local self-government. 15. 3.1.3. A distinction should be drawn between traditional national minorities and the new minorities resulting from immigration. However, in theoretical terms these concepts are not equivalent. In 2003, the Parliamentary Assembly debated the question of preferential treatment of national minorities by the kin-state in the light of the Hungarian law of 19 June 2001 concerning Hungarians living in neighbouring countries ("Magyars"). Because of their importance for the discipline, however, political scientists should be very mindful of their use of the terms “nation” and “nationalism.” In this article, definitions for “nation” and “nationalism” are proposed, with each definition followed by sections on common ways the terms are misemployed in political science. 3. 88. Recognition of national minorities and their rights. The Assembly has acknowledged that in some Council of Europe member states, the concept of nation is used to indicate citizenship, which is a legal link (relation) between a state and an individual, irrespective of the latter’s ethno-cultural origin, while in some other member states the same term is used in order to indicate an organic community speaking a certain language and characterised by a set of similar cultural and historic traditions, by similar perceptions of its past, similar aspirations for its present and similar visions of its future. Does your Constitution include provisions on the rights of kin-citizens living abroad? A new definition is therefore unnecessary. 44. It should also be noted that, in his report on the establishment of a European remembrance Centre for victims of forced population movements and ethnic cleansing (Doc. According to Professor Kovacs, who was heard by the committee, it is impossible to give a common definition of the concept of nation. These “nations” which lived united within common borders were divided in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, but their feeling of belonging to a “nation” remained very strong, even if the members of the “nation” regarded themselves as loyal citizens of the states within which they now formed a “national” minority, ie a minority belonging to a different “nation” from that of the majority in the country. Lastly, although it has never dealt explicitly with the concept of “nation” the Venice Commission has done a great deal of work on the subject of nationality. The recognition of minorities may also be included in an international treaty or a bilateral agreement: -        In the case of Greece, the only officially recognised national minority is the Muslim minority, under the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne; -        It was by virtue of the same treaty that Turkey officially recognised the rights of all non-Muslim communities living in the country; -        Following an exchange of declarations with Germany in 1955, Denmark8 recognised the German minority living in Denmark as a traditional minority and allowed it to retain its national identity, its language and its culture. Some unitary states, such as Estonia, France, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Turkey establish a clear link between unity and indivisibility of the State with the nation; this link is particularly marked in the case of Croatia. Article 3: “It is the firm will of the Irish Nation, in harmony and friendship, to unite all the people who share the territory of the island of Ireland, in all the diversity of their identities and traditions (…)”. In particular, the Action Plan points out that "Europe's chequered history has shown that the protection of national minorities is essential for the maintenance of peace and the development of democratic stability. -        The same applies to Norway with a similar provision to the benefit of the same minority, the Sami, as an indigenous people (Article 110 of the Constitution, Law on the Sami). 103. 56. In Hungary, Article 1.2 of the Law on the Rights of National and Ethnic Minorities gives the following definition: “A national or ethnic minority is an ethnic group which has been living on the territory of the Republic of Hungary for at least one century, which represents a numerical minority among the citizens of the state, the members of which are Hungarian citizens, and are distinguished from the rest of the citizens by their own language, culture and traditions, and at the same time demonstrate a sense of belonging together, which is aimed at the preservation of all these, and the expression and protection of the interests of their communities, which have been formed in the course of history.”. 13. It has acquired a political meaning in the recent times. 60. I consider that both definitions of “nation” are still valid today. The Assembly also notes that because of the way in which the nation-states were formed during the 19th century and the first part of the 20th century, as well as because of nation-states’ border changes at the end of the Second World War and of the Cold War, on the territories of almost all the Council of Europe member states there live various groups of people who are at the same time citizens of the same state or civic nation, but who belong to and are part of different cultural nations. As regards national minorities, it is obvious, therefore, that their members are necessarily citizens of the country in which they are resident. He therefore proposed the following definition of nation: “ A nation is a specific political, social, economic and cultural community, often with a common language, culture and history, living in neighbouring territories, with ‘independent’ political institutions and social organisations; it presupposes a politically sovereign people, master of its own territory, with its own economic life and its state or, failing this, … In Croatia, the Constitutional Act on the Rights of National Minorities defines national minorities as “a group of Croatian citizens whose members traditionally inhabit the territory of the Republic of Croatia, and whose members have ethnic, linguistic, cultural and/or religious characteristics different from other citizens and who are driven by the wish to preserve these characteristics.”. -       The same applies to Denmark, France, Spain, Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, in whose constitution or legislation there is no formal recognition or definition of ethnic or national minorities. Origin and metamorphosis of a concept. 9. 3. linguistic nation. In the Constitution of Germany, the term “German people” refers to persons of German citizenship living in the Federal Republic of Germany. 34. It seems unnecessary in this report to give a detailed description of the situation in each member state. A nation, however, is a group of people who share the same culture but do not have sovereignty. The purpose of all these recommendations is to ensure that the concepts of “nation” and “national community (minority)” are interpreted flexibly and in good faith and to foster a peaceful and tolerant climate between the majority and national minorities in every Council of Europe member state. What is Nation. As a result, they enjoy the same rights as the Greek Cypriot community. 1 See Resolution1335 (2003) and Doc 9744 rev (Rapporteur: Mr Erik Jurgens, Netherlands, SOC). So in its derivative sense nation means a group of people that have a common racial origin. 106. This concerns, in particular, persons who have been deported or persecuted on national and political grounds. Country and State are synonymous terms that both apply to self-governing political entities. 75. 1. a. 2. 101. However, the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man states that “the principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation”. Lastly, Article 8 provides that the Irish language shall be the country’s national language (and its first official language, the second being English). Guibernau (1996, p. 47) has defined the nation as: ‘a human group conscious of forming a community, sharing a common culture, attached to a clearly demarcated territory, having a common past and a common project for the future and claiming the right to rule itself’. 31. 10. The word “nation” is derived from the Latin term Natus which means born. It is important that the Council of Europe member states incorporate into their national legislation provisions accepting national communities (minorities) on their territory, and that they apply them in good faith. Germany considers that national minorities are population groups of German citizenship who possess their own identity, based on language, culture and history, who are traditionally resident in Germany and live there in traditional settlement areas. One might expect the unitary structure of a state to be linked to the promotion of the idea of a single indivisible nation. In actual fact, few member states have such provisions. Article 1 of the Constitution of Greece provides that ”Popular sovereignty is the foundation of government. 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